An Overview of Constitution of India PDF and Download it

The Constitution of India, known as the ‘Bharatiya Samvidhan,’ stands as the supreme law of the land. Renowned for its remarkable length, the Constitution stands as an unparalleled testament to written governance. With its genesis in the Constituent Assembly of India on 26th November 1949, this seminal document assumed its rightful authority on 26th January 1950. Spearheaded by the esteemed Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, who assumed the mantle of chief architect and chairman of the drafting committee, its inception marks a monumental milestone in India’s history.

Constitution of India

This constitutional document serves as the foundation for the political, structural, and procedural framework of the Indian government. It outlines the powers, duties, and functions of various government institutions while also enshrining the fundamental rights, duties, and directive principles for the citizens of India.
Supplanting the Government of India Act, 1935, the Constitution emerged as the paramount guiding framework for the nascent Republic of India. Resolutely asserting India’s identity as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, it forges a path towards justice, equality, and liberty, while cultivating a profound sense of camaraderie among its populace.

The Visionary Blueprint: Influences on the Indian Constitution’s Creation

The framers of the Indian Constitution sought wisdom from a rich tapestry of sources, drawing upon earlier legislations like the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892, and 1909, the Government of India Acts 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. These historical pillars provided a foundation for shaping the Constitution’s principles.
To craft this transformative document, the Constituent Assembly of India was established, comprising elected representatives from the provincial assemblies. This assembly served as the guiding force in weaving the threads of democracy, equality, and justice into the fabric of the Indian Constitution. Originally comprising 389 members, the Assembly’s size was reduced to 299 following the partition of India. Diligently dedicating nearly three years to the crafting process, the committee convened for eleven sessions spanning an extensive 165-day period.

The Process of Drafting the Indian Constitution

Benegal Narsing Rau prepared the preliminary outline of the constitution’s framework in February 1948, which was then discussed and revised. The revised draft was presented to the assembly on November 4, 1947. During the deliberations, 7,635 amendments were proposed, out of which 2,473 were approved. Finally, on November 26, 1949, 284 members of the assembly signed and adopted the constitution, which is celebrated as National Law Day.

Key Facts about the Indian Constitution:

  1. Bilingual Constitution: The Indian Constitution was written and signed in both Hindi and English languages.
  2. Artistic Decorations: The original constitution was handwritten, and each page was adorned with artistic illustrations by notable artists from Shantiniketan, including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose.
  3. Calligrapher: The skilled calligrapher responsible for writing the constitution was Prem Behari Narain Raizada.
  4. Production and Reproduction: The constitution underwent publication in Dehradun and was reproduced through photolithography by the Survey of India.
  5. Elapsed Duration: The arduous task of crafting the original constitution spanned close to five years, exemplifying the diligent endeavors dedicated to its formation.
  6. Paramount Legal Authority: January 26, 1950, witnessed the ascent of the Indian Constitution as the preeminent legal framework, signifying a momentous landmark in the nation’s chronicles.

Significant Remark: The selection of January 26 as the day of the constitution’s enactment holds a profound significance as it pays homage to the momentous Purna Swaraj declaration of independence in 1930.

The Structural Components of the Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India stands unrivaled as the longest constitution in the world for an independent nation. Spanning across 395 articles, meticulously arranged into 22 parts and accompanied by 8 schedules, it showcases the comprehensive framework that governs the nation. With approximately 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active constitution globally.
The constitution encompasses a preamble, 448 articles categorized into 25 parts, and supplemented by 12 schedules and five appendices. Over time, it has undergone 103 amendments, with the latest amendment taking effect on 14 January 2019.
Important Note: The 103rd amendment, which introduced a reservation of 10% for economically weaker sections of society, modified Articles 15 and 16 of the constitution.

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Essential Articles of the Indian Constitution

Having a good understanding of the Indian Constitution is crucial for preparing for civil service examinations, as questions related to it often appear in previous years’ question papers. To assist you in your preparation, we have compiled a list of important articles that you should be familiar with:

Article 12-35Fundamental Rights
Article 36-50Directive Principles of State Policy
Article 51A Fundamental Duties of Every Citizen
Article 80Number of seats in the Rajya Sabha
Article 81Number of seats in the Lok Sabha
Article 343Hindi as the official language
Article 356Imposition of President’s rule in states
Article 370Special status of Kashmir
Article 395Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935
Knowing these articles will provide you with a solid foundation for your civil service examinations (CSEs) and ensure that you are well-prepared for questions related to the Indian Constitution.

Section 1: Articles 1 to 4 – Union Name, Territory, and State Formation

  • Article 1: Embracing Unity and Diversity
  • Article 2: Envisioning a Tapestry of New Horizons
  • Article 3: Evolving Geographies: A Symphony of States’ Growth

Section 2: Articles 5 to 11 – Citizenship

  • Article 5: Embracing Citizens in the Constitutional Journey
  • Article 6: Inclusive Paths: Citizenship for Those Seeking Refuge in India
  • Article 10: Upholding Inherent Rights: Continuity of Citizenship
  • Article 11: Parliament’s Mandate: Shaping Citizenship through Legislative Authority

Section 3: Articles 12 to 35 – Definition of State and Fundamental Rights

  • Article 12: Definition of State and its Entities
  • Article 13: Nullification of Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  • Originally, the Indian Constitution encompassed 7 fundamental rights, but the current count stands at 6. The Right to Property, mentioned in Article 31, was eliminated as a fundamental right by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978. However, a legal right under Article 300-A was introduced and incorporated in Part XII of the constitution.
  • Article 14: Guaranteeing Equality before the Law
  • Article 15: Prohibiting Discrimination based on Religion, Race, Caste, Sex, or Place of Birth
  • Article 16: Ensuring Equal Opportunities in Public Employment
  • Article 17: Eradicating Untouchability
  • Article 18: Abolishing the Practice of Titles
Right to Freedom
  • Article 19: Ensuring Six Fundamental Rights for All Citizens
  • Article 20: Safeguarding Protection in Case of Conviction for Offences
  • Article 21: Safeguarding the Sanctity of Life and Individual Liberty
  • Article 22: Ensuring Safeguards against Unjust Arrest and Detention in Specific Situations
Right against Exploitation
  • Article 23: Proscribing Human Trafficking and Coerced Labor
  • Article 24: Prohibiting the Employment of Children in Factories and Mines (Below the Age of 14)
Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Article 25: Ensuring the Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religious Practice
  • Article 26: Guaranteeing Autonomy in the Administration of Religious Matters
  • Article 27: Safeguarding Freedom from Compulsory Religious Taxation
  • Article 28: Granting Freedom from Compulsory Religious Instruction
Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Article 29: Protecting the Interests of Minorities
  • Article 30: Recognizing the Right of Minorities to Establish and Administer Educational Institutions
  • Article 32: Providing Remedies for the Enforcement of Fundamental Rights

Section 4: Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Article 36: Defining the Scope of Directive Principles
  • Article 37: Implementation of Principles for State Policy
  • Article 39A: Ensuring Fair Justice and Access to Legal Aid
  • Article 40: Establishment of Local Self-Government in Rural Areas
  • Article 41: Empowering Individuals: Socio-Economic Rights in Special Situations
  • Article 43: Ensuring Dignity: Fair Remuneration and Social Security for Workers
  • Article 43A: Collaborative Governance: Workers’ Participation in Industrial Decision-Making
  • Article 44: Fostering Unity: Advancing Harmonious Civil Code Principles (Relevant in Goa)
  • Article 45: Nurturing Minds: Accessible and Compulsory Education for Every Child
  • Article 46: Advancement of Educational and Economic Interests of Marginalized Communities
  • Article 47: State’s Duty to Improve Nutrition, Living Standards, and Public Health
  • Article 48: Development of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
  • Article 49: Safeguarding Monuments, Sites, and Natural Treasures
  • Article 50: Independence of the Judiciary from the Executive
  • Article 51: Advancement of Global Peace and Security
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Part 4A: Fundamental Duties: Initially, it had 10 duties, and now it contains 11 duties after the 86th Amendment Act of 2002.

Section 5: Union Articles

  • Article 52: Head of the Indian State
  • Article 53: Executive Authority of the Union
  • Article 54: Presidential Election Procedure
  • Article 61: Impeachment Procedure for the Head of State
  • Article 63: Deputy Head of the Indian State
  • Article 64: Deputy Head as the Council of States’ Ex-Officio Chairman
  • Article 66: Vice Presidential Election
  • Article 72: Presidential Pardoning Authority
  • Article 74: Council of Ministers’ Advisory Role to the Head of State
  • Article 76: Chief Advocate for India
  • Article 79: Establishment of the National Legislature
  • Article 80: Structure of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
  • Article 81: Structure of the Lok Sabha (House of the People)
  • Article 83: Duration of the Legislative Houses
  • Article 93: Speakers and Deputy Speakers of the Lok Sabha
  • Article 105: Authority, Privileges, and more of the Parliament
  • Article 109: Unique Procedure for Financial Bills
  • Article 110: Definition and Scope of “Financial Bills”
  • Article 112: Annual Financial Budgetary Process
  • Article 114: Appropriation Bills
  • Article 123: Presidential Powers to Issue Ordinances during Parliamentary Recess
  • Article 124: Establishment of the Supreme Court
  • Article 125: Judges’ Salaries
  • Article 126: Appointment of Acting Chief Justice
  • Article 127: Appointment of Temporary Judges
  • Article 128: Attendance of Retired Judges at Supreme Court Proceedings
  • Article 129: Supreme Court as a Record-Keeping Institution
  • Article 130: Supreme Court’s Seat Location
  • Article 136: Special Leave to Appeal to the Supreme Court
  • Article 137: Review of Supreme Court Judgments or Orders
  • Article 141: Binding Nature of Supreme Court Decisions on All Courts
  • Article 148: Auditor General for India
  • Article 149: Responsibilities and Authorities of the Auditor General (AG)

Section 6: States Articles

  • Article 153: State Governors
  • Article 154: Executive Authority of the Governor
  • Article 161: Governor’s Power to Grant Pardons
  • Article 165: State Advocate-General
  • Article 213: Governor’s Authority to Issue Ordinances
  • Article 214: State High Courts
  • Article 215: High Courts as Record-Keeping Institutions
  • Article 226: High Courts’ Power to Issue Specific Writs
  • Article 233: Appointment of District Judges
  • Article 235: Oversight of Lower Courts

Section 7: Repealed

Section 8: Union Territories

Section 9: Panchayats

  • Article 243A: Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B: Constitution of Panchayats

Section 10: Scheduled and Tribal Areas

Section 11: Centre-State Relations

Section 12: Finance, Assets, Agreements, and Lawsuits

  • Article 264 to Article 300A
  • Article 266: Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
  • Article 267: Contingency Fund of India
  • Article 280: Finance Commission
  • Article 300A: Right to Possessions

Section 13: Trade, Commerce, and Interactions within Indian Territory

  • Article 301 to Article 307
  • Article 301: Freedom of Trade, Commerce, and Interactions
  • Article 302: Parliament’s Authority to Impose Restrictions on Trade, Commerce, and Interactions

Section 14: Central and State Services

  • Article 308 to Article 323
  • Article 312: All-India Service
  • Article 315: Union and State Public Service Commissions
  • Article 320: Functions of the Public Service Commission
  • Section 14A: Tribunals
  • Article 323A to Article 323B
  • Article 323A: Administrative Tribunals

Section 15: Elections

  • Article 324 to Article 329
  • Article 324: Election Commission’s Supervision, Direction, and Control of Elections
  • Article 325: Ineligibility for Inclusion in Electoral Roll based on Religion, Race, Caste, or Gender
  • Article 326: Elections based on Adult Suffrage
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Section 16: Special Provisions for SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, and others

  • Article 330 to Article 342
  • Article 338: National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  • Article 340: Commission Appointment to Investigate Backward Classes’ Conditions

Section 17: Language and Communication

  • Article 343 to Article 351
  • Article 343: Recognized Languages of the Nation
  • Article 345: Official Languages of the States
  • Article 348: Language Usage in Supreme Court and High Courts
  • Article 351: Promotion of Hindi Language

Section 18: Emergencies

  • Article 352 to Article 360
  • Article 352: Proclamation of National Emergency
  • Article 356: State Emergency (President’s Rule)
  • Article 360: Financial Emergency

Section 19: Miscellaneous Matters

  • Article 361 to Article 367
  • Article 361: Immunity of the President and Governors
  • Article 367: Interpretation of the Constitution

Section 20: Amendment of the Constitution

  • Article 368
  • Article 368: Parliament’s Authority to Amend the Constitution

Section 21: Special, Transitional, and Temporary Provisions

  • Article 369 to Article 392
  • Article 370: Special Provisions for Jammu and Kashmir
  • Article 371A: Special Provisions for the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371J: Special Status for the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region

Section 22: Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative Text, and Repeals

  • Article 392 to Article 395
  • Article 393: Short Title – This Document shall be known as the Constitution of India

How to download Constitution of India pdf


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FAQs of Constitution of India pdf

Who are the authors of the Constitution of India?

Dr. B R Ambedkar is widely recognized as the principal architect of the Constitution of India. Serving as the chairman of the Drafting Committee, he played a pivotal role in shaping and finalizing the proposed Constitution. However, it is important to note that the physical act of transcribing the Constitution in his own distinctive calligraphy was accomplished by Prem Behari Narain Raizada, to whom the credit for its written form is attributed.

When was the Constitution of India adopted?

On November 26th, 1949, the constituent assembly initially embraced the Constitution of India, and its official implementation took place on January 26th, 1950. This was the day when India was declared a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, as the Constitution was put into effect.

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